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Cream skimmed from milk may be called “sweet cream” to distinguish it from cream skimmed from whey, a by-product of cheese-making. Whey cream has a lower fat content and tastes more salty, tangy and “cheesy”. In many countries, cream is usually sold partially fermented: sour cream, crème fraîche, and so on. Both forms have many culinary uses in sweet, bitter, salty and tangy dishes.

Produced by cattle (particularly Jersey cattle) grazing on natural pasture often contains some natural carotenoid pigments derived from the plants they eat; this gives it a slightly yellow tone, hence the name of the yellowish-white color: cream. This is also the origin of butters yellow color. Cream from goats milk, water buffalo milk, or from cows fed indoors on grain or grain-based pellets, is white.

Cream is used as an ingredient in many foods, including ice cream, many sauces, soups, stews, puddings, and some custard bases, and is also used for cakes. Whipped cream is served as a topping on ice cream sundaes, milkshakes, lassi, eggnog, sweet pies, strawberries, blueberries or peaches. Irish cream is an alcoholic liqueur which blends cream with whiskey, and often honey, wine, or coffee. Cream is also used in Indian curries such as masala dishes.

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Both single and double cream (see Types for definitions) can be used in cooking. Double cream or full-fat crème fraîche are often used when cream is added to a hot sauce, to prevent any problem with it separating or “splitting”. Double cream can be thinned with milk to make an approximation of single cream.

The French word crème denotes not only dairy cream, but also other thick liquids such as sweet and savory custards, which are normally made with milk, not cream.

Different grades of cream are distinguished by their fat content, whether they have been heat-treated, whipped, and so on. In many jurisdictions, there are regulations for each type.

The Australia New Zealand Food Standards Code – Standard 2.5.2 – Defines cream as a milk product comparatively rich in fat, in the form of an emulsion of fat-in-skim milk, which can be obtained by separation from milk. Cream must contain no less than 350 g/kg (35%) milk fat.

Canadian cream definitions are similar to those used in the United States, except for “light cream”, which is very low-fat cream, usually with 5 or 6 percent butterfat.

Regulations allow cream to contain acidity regulators and stabilizers. For whipping cream, allowed additives include skim milk powder (0.25%), glucose solids (0.1%), calcium sulphate (0.005%), and xanthan gum (0.02%).

Russia, as well as other EAC countries, legally separates cream into two classes: normal (10–34% butterfat) and heavy (35–58%), but the industry has pretty much standardized around the following types:

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The Organic cotton farms revolutionising the industry

There are a number of different theories and hypotheses regarding early state formation that seek generalizations to explain why the state developed in some places but not others. Other scholars believe that generalizations are unhelpful and that each case of early state formation should be treated on its own.

Voluntary contend groups theories of people came together to form states as a result of some shared rational interest.

Conflict theories of state formation regard conflict and dominance of some population over another population as key to the formation of states.

The first states of sorts were those of early dynastic Sumer and early dynastic Egypt, which arose from the Uruk period and Predynastic Egypt respectively around approximately 3000 BCE.

Although state-forms existed before the rise of the Ancient Greek empire, the Greeks were the first people known to have explicitly formulated a political philosophy of the state, and to have rationally analyzed political institutions. Prior to this, states were described and justified in terms of religious myths.

Several important political innovations of classical antiquity came from the Greek city-states (polis) and the Roman Republic. The Greek city-states before the 4th century granted citizenship rights to their free population; in Athens these rights were combined with a directly democratic form of government that was to have a long afterlife in political thought and history.

Firefighter combats flames downtown

Political globalization began in the 20th century through intergovernmental organizations and supranational unions. The League of Nations was founded after World War I, and after World War II it was replaced by the United Nations. Various international treaties have been signed through it. Regional integration has been pursued by the African Union, ASEAN, the European Union, and Mercosur. International political institutions on the international level include the International Criminal Court, the International Monetary Fund, and the World Trade Organization.

The history of the world is commonly understood as the history of humanity spanning the major geopolitical developments of about five millennia, from the first civilizations to the present. In terms such as world religion, world language, world government, and world war, the term world suggests an international or intercontinental scope without necessarily implying participation of every part of the world.

The world population is the sum of all human populations at any time; similarly, the world economy is the sum of the economies of all societies or countries, especially in the context of globalization:

  • Terms such as “world championship”, “gross world product”, and “world flags” imply the sum or combination of all sovereign states.
  • While the Germanic word thus reflects a mythological notion of a domain of Man compare Midgard.
  • The corresponding word in Latin is mundus literally “clean, elegant” as an act of establishing order out of chaos.

Itself a loan translation of Greek cosmos “orderly arrangement.” presumably as opposed to the divine sphere on the one hand and the chthonic sphere of the underworld on the other, the Greco-Latin term expresses a notion of creation.

“World” distinguishes the entire planet or population from any particular country or region: world affairs pertain not just to one place but to the whole world, and world history is a field of history that examines events from a global (rather than a national or a regional) perspective. Earth, on the other hand, refers to the planet as a physical entity, and distinguishes it from other planets and physical objects.

Was also classically used to mean the material universe, or the cosmos: “The worlde is an apte frame of heauen and earthe, and all other natural thinges contained in them.”

The term can also be used attributively, to mean “global”, or “relating to the whole world”, forming usages such as world community or world canonical texts.

By extension, a world may refer to any planet or heavenly body, especially when it is thought of as inhabited, especially in the context of science fiction or futurology.

In philosophy, the term world has several possible meanings. In some contexts, it refers to everything that makes up reality or the physical universe. In others, it can mean have a specific ontological sense. While clarifying the concept of world has arguably always been among the basic tasks of Western philosophy, this theme appears to have been raised explicitly only at the start of the twentieth century and has been the subject of continuous debate. The question of what the world is has by no means been settled.

The traditional interpretation of Parmenides work is that he argued that the everyday perception of reality of the physical world is mistaken, and that the reality of the world is One Being: an unchanging, ungenerated, indestructible whole.

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The Poet who redefined our notion of love

There are a number of different theories and hypotheses regarding early state formation that seek generalizations to explain why the state developed in some places but not others. Other scholars believe that generalizations are unhelpful and that each case of early state formation should be treated on its own.

Voluntary contend groups theories of people came together to form states as a result of some shared rational interest.

Conflict theories of state formation regard conflict and dominance of some population over another population as key to the formation of states.

The first states of sorts were those of early dynastic Sumer and early dynastic Egypt, which arose from the Uruk period and Predynastic Egypt respectively around approximately 3000 BCE.

Although state-forms existed before the rise of the Ancient Greek empire, the Greeks were the first people known to have explicitly formulated a political philosophy of the state, and to have rationally analyzed political institutions. Prior to this, states were described and justified in terms of religious myths.

Several important political innovations of classical antiquity came from the Greek city-states (polis) and the Roman Republic. The Greek city-states before the 4th century granted citizenship rights to their free population; in Athens these rights were combined with a directly democratic form of government that was to have a long afterlife in political thought and history.

Firefighter combats flames downtown

Political globalization began in the 20th century through intergovernmental organizations and supranational unions. The League of Nations was founded after World War I, and after World War II it was replaced by the United Nations. Various international treaties have been signed through it. Regional integration has been pursued by the African Union, ASEAN, the European Union, and Mercosur. International political institutions on the international level include the International Criminal Court, the International Monetary Fund, and the World Trade Organization.

The history of the world is commonly understood as the history of humanity spanning the major geopolitical developments of about five millennia, from the first civilizations to the present. In terms such as world religion, world language, world government, and world war, the term world suggests an international or intercontinental scope without necessarily implying participation of every part of the world.

The world population is the sum of all human populations at any time; similarly, the world economy is the sum of the economies of all societies or countries, especially in the context of globalization:

  • Terms such as “world championship”, “gross world product”, and “world flags” imply the sum or combination of all sovereign states.
  • While the Germanic word thus reflects a mythological notion of a domain of Man compare Midgard.
  • The corresponding word in Latin is mundus literally “clean, elegant” as an act of establishing order out of chaos.

Itself a loan translation of Greek cosmos “orderly arrangement.” presumably as opposed to the divine sphere on the one hand and the chthonic sphere of the underworld on the other, the Greco-Latin term expresses a notion of creation.

“World” distinguishes the entire planet or population from any particular country or region: world affairs pertain not just to one place but to the whole world, and world history is a field of history that examines events from a global (rather than a national or a regional) perspective. Earth, on the other hand, refers to the planet as a physical entity, and distinguishes it from other planets and physical objects.

Was also classically used to mean the material universe, or the cosmos: “The worlde is an apte frame of heauen and earthe, and all other natural thinges contained in them.”

The term can also be used attributively, to mean “global”, or “relating to the whole world”, forming usages such as world community or world canonical texts.

By extension, a world may refer to any planet or heavenly body, especially when it is thought of as inhabited, especially in the context of science fiction or futurology.

In philosophy, the term world has several possible meanings. In some contexts, it refers to everything that makes up reality or the physical universe. In others, it can mean have a specific ontological sense. While clarifying the concept of world has arguably always been among the basic tasks of Western philosophy, this theme appears to have been raised explicitly only at the start of the twentieth century and has been the subject of continuous debate. The question of what the world is has by no means been settled.

The traditional interpretation of Parmenides work is that he argued that the everyday perception of reality of the physical world is mistaken, and that the reality of the world is One Being: an unchanging, ungenerated, indestructible whole.

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Business bankruptcy spike forecast as Paycheck Protection Program ends

Businesses large and small cannot continue to operate much longer at reduced capacity for the coronavirus, and analysts expect hundreds more companies to file for bankruptcy before the November elections as government restrictions and dried-up consumer demand take a devastating toll on the U.S. economy. Hardly any sector of the economy is immune to social…

Business bankruptcy spike forecast as Paycheck Protection Program ends

Businesses large and small cannot continue to operate much longer at reduced capacity for the coronavirus, and analysts expect hundreds more companies to file for bankruptcy before the November elections as government restrictions and dried-up consumer demand take a devastating toll on the U.S. economy.

Hardly any sector of the economy is immune to social distancing rules cutting into profits, with theaters, hotels, restaurants, gyms and retailers struggling to stay afloat.

Reopening plans have been reversed in nine states and paused in a dozen others, and more than half of U.S. states remain under business restrictions.

Bankruptcy filings are soaring. In the first half of the year, 3,427 U.S. companies filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection, near the 3,491 that did so at the same point during the 2008 financial meltdown, according to an analysis by the Financial Times.

Economists warn that more bankruptcies are on the way as restrictions continue and federal aid expires in August.

“A lot of consumers and businesses have been shielded from the real impacts,” said Ernie Goss, an economics and finance professor at Creighton University.

A Goldman Sachs survey this month of 1,511 business owners across 49 states revealed that 84% of businesses that received federal Paycheck Protection Program aid said they will run out of the money in the first week of August.

Only 16% of the loan recipients said they will be able to continue to pay employees without more government aid.

According to a survey released last week by the National Federation of Independent Business, 46% of small businesses that applied for financial assistance anticipate needing more help in the next 12 months.

“Economic conditions are dire for about 4% of owners who say they will only be able to survive for no more than one to two months,” the NFIB analysis noted.

Congress is debating another relief package. If approved, it likely would come with an extension of supercharged unemployment benefits that could keep many service industry workers on the sidelines.

“That makes it again difficult for the restaurants and some of these venues to get workers back when they can make more by being unemployed,” Mr. Goss said.

One of the hardest-hit industries has been restaurants.

Restaurants, which generally survive on a thin profit margin in the best of times, face ruin if they are limited to 50% capacity as many states dictate in their reopenings.

Sean Kennedy, executive vice president for public affairs with the National Restaurant Association, said his industry is the second-largest employer but lost more jobs and revenue than any other industry during the pandemic. His group pushed Congress to provide relief specifically to restaurants.

About 100,000 restaurants have had to temporarily close in the past two weeks because of local and state mandates, said Mr. Kennedy, warning that the on-and-off-again shutdowns will force many restaurants to close their doors for good.

“When we shut down, it costs us a lot of money and then to start back up costs a lot of money as well,” Mr. Kennedy said.

The largest of the chains are not immune.

Starbucks and Dunkin’ Donuts have permanently closed more than 1,000 locations because of the pandemic, and TGI Fridays, IHOP and Denny’s are shuttering dozens of locations.

At least two dozen restaurants have closed permanently in the nation’s capital and its suburbs as a result of COVID-19 restrictions.

Sotto, a speakeasy-style restaurant in the District of Columbia known for live jazz, smoked meats and classic cocktails, recently bade a fond farewell to its clientele.

“THANK YOU FOR 7 GREAT YEARS!” read the goodbye message on its website. “It has been a joy to be a part of this community. This pandemic has directly affected all of us and our industry as a whole, and it is with great sadness that we will not be reopening.”

Airlines are struggling to keep pace with the sharp decrease in demand, and more than a dozen of them, mostly international, have shut down or filed for bankruptcy.

Carriers have fewer domestic passengers than they did a year ago, according to Airlines for America, the trade group for the nation’s largest airlines. Net passenger bookings are down 80% and revenue has plunged more than 90%, according to the organization’s COVID-19 charts and analysis.

Hotels, too, are at risk.

Chip Rogers, president of the American Hotel and Lodging Association, recently said more than 8,000 hotels could close in September.

“If business travel doesn’t pick up by this fall and the PPP funding has run out, then the really bad problem that exists today is going to result in massive foreclosures for hotels,” Mr. Rogers told Nexstar Media Group.

Large department stores such as J.C. Penney and Neiman Marcus, rental car companies including Hertz, and gyms such as 24 Hour Fitness and Gold’s Gym have announced closures, and many filed for bankruptcy.

Steve Hanke, a professor in applied economics at the Johns Hopkins University who served as a senior economist on President Reagan’s Council of Economic Advisers, said the Small Business Reorganization Act, enacted before the pandemic, has made it easier for small businesses to file for bankruptcy by cutting their legal fees in half.

He said about 100 bankruptcy filings have come from small businesses — those with less than $2.7 million in debt — every month since February.

“There will be many more bankruptcies. That’s baked in the cake already. No matter how the COVID virus evolves and what course it takes, there’s been enough damage right now,” Mr. Hanke told The Washington Times, though he noted that businesses were in a better position heading into this downturn than they were in 2008 because the economy was booming late last year.

What happens next, however, is anybody’s guess.

“You have no precedent,” he said. “We might be into 2024 before we reach the same level of per capita GDP that we had prior to the virus.”

⦁ S.A. Miller contributed to this report.

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