“Every time you work the field, you get malaria,” said Esperance, 50, who’s been farming for 19 years.
Rwanda’s tens of thousands of acres of bright green, grassy rice fields present a paradox for the landlocked East African country. The crop is a dietary staple for virtually every family here — and it brings in a good chunk of the country’s GDP. So the government is embarking on an aggressive campaign to produce even more. But the waterlogged fields where the grain grows are the ideal breeding ground for mosquitoes, so the disease is rampant.
Experts say there’s a relatively easy fix to this problem — but most farmers are still waiting for relief.
Sindayigaya Marc had a taste of what life without the threat of malaria feels like back in 2016. Researchers from the Rwanda Biomedical Center came to where he lives and works, in the Bugesera District in Rwanda’s Eastern Province. They brought with them something that changed Marc’s life, but only for six months: a larvicide that kills mosquitoes before they hatch.
Marc was one of dozens of farmers in the study who began applying the larvicide, called Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis, or Bti, to the fields himself, using the same machine they use for pesticides. The study also involved preparing community action teams to deliver malaria-prevention education to villages.
Marc had been infected with malaria so many times that he stopped going to the hospital when he got the trademark fever and chills. His three kids have all had it too. Suddenly, they were free from the disease — and the worry.
The study showed that over a year, there was a 90% decrease in mosquito density in Marc’s rice fields. But when the study ended, farmers were left without the larvicide — and with ten times the amount of mosquitoes once again.
On a recent afternoon in his field, Marc pointed to mosquito larvae in water. Years earlier, he had been trained to identify and spray them. Now, “[we] can’t do anything about it,” he said. Marc added that when there were fewer mosquitoes, the farmers had been able to stay in the fields later in the day and wear short sleeves. “If [there were] no mosquitoes,” he said, he could work even more.
After their study concluded in 2015, the researchers from the Rwanda Biomedical Center and their Dutch partners had recommended the government incorporate Bti into their farming practices. The larvicide has been used in the United States for over 30 years, and it’s EPA-approved. The agency says it doesn’t pose a risk to humans.
But the government never funded national Bti spraying. And over the next nearly five years, the government pushed to increase rice production by turning marshlands into rice fields. The number of reported malaria cases, meanwhile, increased 68%, from 2.5 million in 2015 to 4.2 million in 2018, according to the World Health Organization.
In a 2018 study, the country’s experts “hypothesized that a potential contributor to the increase in cases” was this push to convert the marshlands.
In 2016, the government established a national strategy titled “The Rwanda We Want: Towards Vision 2050.” In it, they outline their hope to eradicate malaria by mid-century. While cases began to decline between 2016 and 2018, malaria in Rwanda is still extremely widespread. The World Health Organization says the whole population is at risk for the disease. Without proper care, malaria’s complications can be deadly.
And despite these widespread concerns about the lack of malaria prevention or education for tens of thousands of rice farmers and surrounding communities, Rwanda has been ramping up its push for more rice for years. In the Rulindo district in the country’s north, the new planting season kicked off with fanfare in late September.
Charles Bucagu, the deputy director general of the Rwanda Agriculture Board, stood atop a hill overlooking vast fields. He said the government was undergoing a “crop intensification program,” aiming to increase the amount of rice yield from under two tons per acre to almost three, through farmer training and new tools.